PAKISTAN


PAKISTAN
PAKISTAN, Islamic republic, S. Asia, established-in 1947 after the partition of India. At the beginning of the 20th century, the largest city, Karachi, had about 2,500 Jews engaged as tradesmen, artisans, and civil servants. Their mother tongue was Marathi, indicating their bene israel origin. In 1893 the Jews of Karachi built the Magen Shalom Synagogue (D.S. Sassoon, Ohel Dawid, 2 (1932), 576), and in 1936 one of the leaders of the Jewish community, Abraham Reuben, became the first Jewish councilor on the city corporation. The Jews lived primarily in Karachi, but there was a small community served by two synagogues in Peshawar in the northwest   frontier province. The following Jewish organizations existed at that time: the Young Men's Jewish Association, founded in 1903, whose aim was to encourage sports as well as religious and social activities of the Bene Israel in Karachi; the Karachi Bene Israel Relief Fund, established to support poor Jews in Karachi; the Karachi Jewish syndicate, formed in 1918, to provide homes to poor Jews at reasonable rents. The foundation of an Islamic state immediately prior to the establishment of the State of Israel created a rising feeling of insecurity within the Jewish community; this anxiety was later exacerbated by the disturbances and demonstrations directed against the Jews during the Arab-Israel wars in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. A large number of Jews moved from Pakistan to India, which became for some the stepping stone to a further migration to Israel and the United Kingdom. The small community in Peshawar ceased to exist, and the synagogues were closed. By 1968 the total number of Jews in Pakistan had decreased to 250, almost all of whom were concentrated in Karachi, where there was one synagogue, a welfare organization, and a recreational organization. Out of Muslim solidarity with the Arab states and the Palestinians, Pakistan did not establish any ties with Israel and frequently joined in anti-Israel moves in the United Nations and the boycott initiated by the Arab states. Only in 2005 were some steps towards rapprochement made, vociferously condemned by Islamic groups in the capital, Islamabad. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: World Jewish Congress Institute of Jewish Affairs, Jewish Communities of the World (1971), 72. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: EIS2 8 (1995), 240–4 (incl. bibliography); L. Ziring, Pakistan at the Crosscurrent of History (2003). (Walter Joseph Fischel, Paul Gottlieb, and E. Elias)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PAKISTAN — Le Pakistan est né de la volonté des musulmans de l’Inde anglaise d’obtenir un «État séparé». La création de celui ci a été réclamée dans les dernières années d’existence de l’Empire des Indes par la Ligue musulmane de Mohammed Jinnah, qui avait… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pakistan — prop. n. A country in South Asia formerly part of British India. Syn: West Pakistan. [WordNet 1.5] Note: Data on Pakistan from the CIA WOrld Factbook, 1996 Geography: Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and Iran… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Pakistán — Esta es la grafía más extendida en español para el nombre de este país asiático, que coincide, además, con la de su nombre oficial; se desaconseja, por ello, la grafía alternativa y minoritaria Paquistán. Este topónimo puede usarse precedido de… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Pakistan — Pȁkistān m DEFINICIJA geogr. država u J Aziji s izlazom na Arapsko more, 796.095 km2, 127.962.000 stan., glavni grad Islamabad SINTAGMA Istočni Pakistan pov. I dio Pakistana 1947 1971, otada Bangladeš …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Pakistan — south Asian nation formed 1947 by division of British India, the name apparently proposed 1930s by Muslim students at Cambridge University, first element said to be an acronym from Punjab, Afghanistan and Kashmir, three regions envisioned as… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Pakistan — [pak′i stan΄, pä′ki stän΄] country in S Asia, on the Arabian Sea: formed from parts of former British India, it became a dominion (1947 56) & a republic (1956 72; 1989 99) of the Commonwealth: 307,293 sq mi (795,886 sq km); pop. 131,500,000; cap …   English World dictionary

  • Pakistan — /pak euh stan , pah keuh stahn /, n. 1. Islamic Republic of, a republic in S Asia, between India and Afghanistan: formerly part of British India; known as West Pakistan from 1947 71 to distinguish it from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).… …   Universalium

  • Pakistan — This article is about the nation of Pakistan. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation) and Pakistani (disambiguation). Islamic Republic of Pakistan …   Wikipedia

  • Pakistan — اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان Islāmī Ǧumhūriya i Pākistān (Urdu) Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Engl.) Islamische Republik Pakistan …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pakistan — اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان (ur) Islāmī Jumhūrīyah Pākistān (ur) Islamic …   Wikipédia en Français


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